"TITTER YE NOT"
How do you brainwash a
Give them a Enema
'Our founder may be dead and gone, but our plans to
brainwash youngsters and
adults alike for world
domination will continue
long after his legacy was made.'..
said a Disneyland spokesperson
According to studies, the best way to brainwash someone is to tie them to a chair and play them shitty music.
A bit like being quadriplegic at a One Direction gig.
For my birthday, my friend
bought me a numeracy game that you can control with your mind.
I really didn't like it, but it's the thought that counts.
Project MK Ultra — sometimes referred to as the CIA's mind
control program — was the code name given to an illegal
program of experiments on human subjects, designed and
undertaken by the United States of America Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA). Experiments on humans were intended to identify and develop
drugs and procedures to be used in interrogations and torture, in order to weaken the individual to force confessions through
mind control. Organized through the Scientific Intelligence Division of the CIA, the project coordinated with the Special Operations Division of the U.S. Army's Chemical Corps. The program began in the early 1950s, was officially sanctioned in 1953, was reduced in scope in 1964, further curtailed in 1967 and officially halted in 1973. The program engaged in many illegal activities; in particular it used unwitting U.S. and Canadian citizens as its test subjects, which led to controversy regarding its legitimacy.
MK Ultra used numerous methodologies to manipulate people's mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD ) and other chemicals, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal
and sexual abuse, as well as various forms of torture.
The scope of Project MKUltra was broad, with research undertaken at 80 institutions, including 44 colleges and universities, as well as hospitals, prisons and pharmaceutical companies. The CIA operated through these institutions using front organizations, although sometimes top officials at these institutions were aware of the CIA's involvement. As the US Supreme Court later noted, MK ULTRA was:
Concerned with "the research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behaviour." The program consisted of some 149 sub projects which the Agency contracted out to various universities, research foundations, and similar institutions. At least 80 institutions and 185 private researchers participated. Because the Agency funded MK ULTRA indirectly, many of the participating individuals were unaware that they were dealing with the Agency.
Project MK Ultra was first brought to public attention in 1975 by the Church
Committee of the U.S. Congress, and a Gerald Ford commission to
investigate CIA activities within the United States. Investigative efforts were
hampered by the fact that CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MK Ultra
files destroyed in 1973; the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission
investigations relied on the sworn testimony of direct participants and on the
relatively small number of documents that survived Helms' destruction order.
In 1977, a Freedom of Information Act request uncovered a cache of 20,000
documents relating to project MK Ultra, which led to Senate hearings later
that same year. In July 2001, some surviving information regarding MK Ultra
was officially declassified.
In 1945 the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency was established and given
direct responsibility for Operation Paperclip. The program recruited former
Nazi scientists, some of whom had been identified and prosecuted as war
criminals during the Nuremberg Trials.
Several secret U.S. government projects grew out of Operation Paperclip.
These projects included Project CHATTER (established 1947), and Project
BLUEBIRD (established 1950), which was renamed Project ARTICHOKE in
1951. Their purpose was to study mind control, interrogation, behaviour
modification and related topics.
The project's intentionally oblique CIA cryptonym is made up of the digraph
MK, meaning that the project was sponsored by the agency's Technical
Services Staff, followed by the word Ultra (which had previously been used
to designate the most secret classification of World War II intelligence).
Other related cryptonyms include Project MK NAOMI and Project MK
Headed by Sidney Gottlieb, the MK Ultra project was started on the order of
CIA director Allen Welsh Dulles on April 13th, 1953. Its aim was to develop
mind-controlling drugs for use against the Soviet bloc, largely in response to
alleged Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean use of mind control techniques
on U.S. prisoners of war in Korea. The CIA wanted to use similar methods
on their own captives.
The CIA was also interested in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with
such techniques, and would later invent several schemes to drug Fidel
Castro. Experiments were often conducted without the subjects' knowledge
or consent. In some cases, academic researchers being funded through
grants from CIA front organizations were unaware that their work was being
used for these purposes.
In 1964, the project was renamed MK SEARCH. The project attempted to
produce a perfect truth drug for use in interrogating suspected Soviet spies
during the Cold War, and generally to explore any other possibilities of mind control. Another MK Ultra effort, Sub-project 54, was the Navy's top secret "Perfect Concussion" program, which was supposed to use sub-aural frequency blasts to erase memory. However, the program was never carried out.
Because most MK Ultra records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 by order of then CIA director Richard Helms, it has
been difficult, if not impossible, for investigators to gain a complete understanding of the more than 150 individually funded research sub-projects sponsored by MK Ultra and related CIA programs. The project began during a period of what Rupert Cornwell described as "paranoia" at the CIA, when America had lost its nuclear monopoly, and fear of Communism was at its height. James Jesus Angleton, head of CIA counter intelligence, believed that the organization had been penetrated by a mole at the highest levels.
The Agency poured millions of dollars into studies examining methods of influencing and controlling the mind, and of enhancing their ability to extract information from resistant subjects during interrogation. Some historians have asserted that creating a "Manchurian Candidate" subject through "mind control" techniques was a goal of MK Ultra and related CIA projects. Alfred McCoy has claimed that the CIA attempted to focus media attention on these sorts of "ridiculous" programs, so that the public would not look at the primary goal of the research, which was developing effective methods of torture and interrogation.
Such authors cite as one example that the CIA's
KUBARK interrogation manual refers to "studies at
McGill University", and that most of the techniques
recommended in KUBARK are exactly those that
researcher Donald Ewen Cameron used on his test
subjects (sensory deprivation, drugs, isolation, etc.).
One 1955 MK Ultra document gives an indication of
the size and range of the effort; this document refers
to the study of an assortment of mind-altering
substances described as follows:
Substances which will promote
illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient
would be discredited in public.
Substances which increase the efficiency of meditation and
Materials which will cause the victim to age faster/slower in maturity.
Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.
Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a
reversible way so that they may be used for malingering, etc.
Materials which will cause temporary/permanent brain damage and loss of
Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation,
torture and coercion during interrogation and so-called "brain-washing".
Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding
and during their use.
Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of
time and capable of surreptitious use.
Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute anemia, etc.
Substances which will produce a chemical that can cause blisters.
Substances which alter personality structure in such a way that the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.
A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type that the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.
Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.
Substances which promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.
A knockout pill which can surreptitiously be administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.
A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a person to perform physical activity.
MUSE MK ULTRA
CIA documents suggest that "chemical, biological and radio-logical" means were investigated for the purpose of mind control as part of MK Ultra. A secret memorandum granted the MK Ultra director up to six percent of the CIA research budget in fiscal year 1953, without oversight or accounting. An estimated $10 million USD (roughly $87.5 million adjusted for inflation) or more was spent.
Early CIA efforts focused on LSD, which later came to dominate many of MK Ultra's programs. Technical Services Staff officials understood that LSD distorted a person's sense of reality, and they felt compelled to learn whether it could alter someone's basic loyalties. The CIA wanted to know if they could make Russian spies defect against their will and whether the Russians could do the same to their own operatives.
Once Project MK Ultra officially got underway in April, 1953, experiments included administering LSD to mental patients, prisoners, drug addicts and prostitutes, "people who could not fight back," as one agency officer put it. In one case LSD was administered to a mental patient in Kentucky for 174 days. LSD was also administered to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, and members of the general public in order to study their reactions. LSD and other drugs were usually administered without the subject's knowledge or informed consent, a violation of the Nuremberg Code that the U.S. agreed to follow after World War II. The aim of this was to find drugs which would irresistibly bring out deep confessions or wipe a subject's mind clean and program him or her as "a robot agent."
In Operation Midnight Climax, the CIA set up several brothels in San Francisco, California to obtain a selection of men who would be too embarrassed to talk about the events. The men were dosed with LSD, the brothels were equipped with one-way mirrors, and the sessions were filmed for later viewing and study. In other experiments where people were given LSD without their knowledge, they were interrogated under bright lights with doctors in the background taking notes. The subjects were told that their "trips" would be extended indefinitely if they refused to reveal their secrets. The people being interrogated this way were CIA employees, U.S. military personnel, and agents suspected of working for the other side in the Cold War. Long-term debilitation and several deaths resulted from this. Heroin addicts were bribed into taking LSD with offers of more heroin.
The office of Security used LSD in interrogations but Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the chemist who directed MK Ultra, had other ideas:
he thought it could be used in covert operations. Since its effects were temporary, he believed it could be given to high officials and in this way affect the course of important meetings, speeches etc. Since he realized there was a difference in testing the drug in a laboratory and using it in clandestine operations, he initiated a series of experiments where LSD was given to people in "normal" settings without warning. At first, everyone in Technical Services tried it; a typical experiment involved two people in a room where they observed each other for hours and took notes. As the experimentation progressed, a point was reached where outsiders were drugged with no explanation whatsoever and surprise acid trips became something of an occupational hazard among CIA operatives. Adverse reactions often occurred, for example an operative
who had received the drug in his morning coffee, became psychotic and ran across Washington, seeing a monster in every car that passed him. The experiments continued even after Dr. Frank Olson, an Army scientist who had not taken LSD before, went into deep depression after a surprise trip and later fell from a thirteenth story window (it is unclear whether he committed suicide or was murdered).
Some subjects' participation was consensual, and in these cases they appeared to be singled out for even more extreme
experiments. In one case, seven volunteers in Kentucky were given LSD
for 77 consecutive days. LSD was eventually dismissed by MK Ultra's
researchers as too unpredictable in its results. They had given upon the
notion that LSD was "the secret that was going to unlock the universe,"
but it still had a place in the cloak-and-dagger arsenal.
However, by 1962 the CIA and the army had developed a series of super
hallucinogens such as the highly touted BZ, which was thought to hold
greater promise as a mind control weapon. This resulted in the
withdrawal of support by many academics and private researchers, and
LSD research became less of a priority.
Another technique investigated was connecting a barbiturate IV into one
arm and an amphetamine IV into the other. The barbiturates were
released into the person first, and as soon as the person began to fall
asleep, the amphetamines were released. The person would then begin
babbling incoherently, and it was sometimes possible to ask questions and get useful answers.
Other experiments involved drugs such as temazepam (code name MK SEARCH), heroin, morphine, mescaline, psilocybin, scopolamine, marijuana, alcohol, sodium pentothal, and ergine.
In 1973, with the government-wide panic caused by Watergate, the CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MK Ultra files destroyed. Pursuant to this order, most CIA documents regarding the project were destroyed, making a full investigation of MK Ultra impossible. A cache of some 20,000 documents survived Helms' purge, as they had been incorrectly stored in a financial records building and were discovered following a FOIA request in 1977. These documents were fully investigated during the Senate Hearings of 1977. In December 1974, The New York Times alleged that the CIA had conducted illegal domestic activities, including experiments on U.S. citizens, during the 1960s. That report prompted investigations by the U.S. Congress, in the form of the Church Committee, and by a presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission that looked into domestic activities of the CIA, the FBI, and intelligence-related agencies of the military.
In the summer of 1975, congressional Church Committee reports and the presidential Rockefeller Commission report revealed to the public for the first time that the CIA and the Department of Defence had conducted experiments on both unwitting and cognizant human subjects as part of an extensive program to influence and control human behaviour through the use of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and mescaline and other chemical, biological, and psychological means. They also revealed that at least one subject had died after administration of LSD. Much of what the Church Committee and the Rockefeller Commission learned about MK Ultra was contained in a report, prepared by the Inspector General's office in 1963, that had survived the destruction of records ordered in 1973. However, it contained little detail. Sidney Gottlieb, who had retired from the CIA two years previously, was interviewed by the committee but claimed to have very little recollection of the activities of MK Ultra.
On the Senate floor in 1977, Senator Ted Kennedy said:
The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over thirty universities and institutions were involved in an "extensive testing and experimentation" program which included covert drug tests on unwitting citizens "at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign." Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to "unwitting subjects in social situations." At least one death, that of Dr. Olson, resulted from these activities. The Agency itself acknowledged that these tests made little scientific sense. The agents doing the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers.
The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1984, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.
The quote from the study:
Working with the CIA, the Department of Defence gave hallucinogenic drugs to thousands of "volunteer" soldiers in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition to LSD, the Army also tested quinuclidinyl benzilate, a hallucinogen codenamed BZ. Many of these tests were conducted under the so-called MK ULTRA program, established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing techniques. Between 1953 and 1964, the program consisted of 149 projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting human subjects.
Given the CIA's purposeful destruction of most records, its failure to follow informed consent
protocols with thousands of participants, the uncontrolled nature of the experiments,
and the lack of follow-up data, the full impact of MK Ultra experiments, including deaths,
will never be known.